¿QUÉ DEBO SABER DEL SARAMPIÓN?

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[En México, existe una NORMA Oficial Mexicana NOM-031-SSA2-1999. Para la atención a la salud del niño. La cual contempla precisamente la prevención del Sarampión, aquí les transcribo un fragmento de la misma, en relación a este padecimiento que en los últimos días ha provocado toda una serie de medidas sanitarias en todo el país.

NORMA OFICIAL MEXICANA NOM-031-SSA2-1999, PARA LA ATENCION A LA SALUD DEL NIÑO

1. Objetivo y campo de aplicación
1.1 Esta Norma Oficial Mexicana tiene por objeto establecer los requisitos que deben seguirse para asegurar la atención integrada, el control, eliminación y erradicación de las enfermedades evitables por vacunación; la prevención y el control de las enfermedades diarreicas, infecciones respiratorias agudas, vigilancia del estado de nutrición y crecimiento, y el desarrollo de los niños menores de 5 años.
1.2 Esta Norma Oficial Mexicana es de observancia obligatoria en todas las instituciones que prestan servicios de atención médica de los sectores público, social y privado del Sistema Nacional de Salud.

Y de aquí saltamos al inciso 6.1.4., que habla sobre la Vacuna:
6.1.4 Triple Viral (SRP), contra sarampión, rubéola y parotiditis
6.1.4.1 Las vacunas que se utilizan para prevenir el sarampión, rubéola y parotiditis, son las siguientes:
6.1.4.1.1 Virus atenuados de sarampión, de las cepas Edmonston-Zagreb (cultivado en células diploides humanas), Enders y Schwarz (cultivados en fibroblastos de embrión de pollo). La dosis de 0.5 ml debe contener no menos de 3.0 log10 DICC50 y no más 4.5 log10 DICC50.

6.1.4.1.2 Virus atenuados de rubéola cepa Wistar RA 27/3 cultivado en células diploides humanas, en células diploides humanas MRC-5 o WI-38. La dosis de 0.5 ml debe contener no menos de 3.0 log10 DICC50.
6.1.4.1.3 Virus atenuados de la parotiditis cultivados en huevo embrionario de gallina o en células diploides, de las cepas Rubini, Leningrad-Zagreb, Jeryl Lynn, Urabe AM-9, RIT 4385. Cada dosis debe contener no menos de 3.7 log10 DICC50, a excepción de la cepa Jeryl Lynn que debe contener no menos de 4.3 log10 DICC50.

6.1.4.2 Indicaciones: Para la inmunización activa contra sarampión, rubéola y parotiditis.
6.1.4.3 Administración: subcutánea, en la región deltoidea del brazo izquierdo;
6.1.4.4 Grupo de edad: aplicación a todos los niños entre uno y seis años, o personas mayores de esta edad en circunstancias de riesgo epidemiológico;
6.1.4.5 Esquema: dos dosis de vacuna; la primera a partir de los doce meses de edad; cuando esto no sea posible, el periodo se ampliará hasta los cuatro años y, la segunda, al cumplir los seis años o ingresar a la escuela primaria;
6.1.4.6 Dosis: 0.5 ml de vacuna reconstituida.
6.1.4.7 Contraindicaciones: Inmunodeficiencias que incluye a pacientes con enfermedades hemato/oncológicas en quimio o radioterapia, a excepción de la infección por VIH/SIDA, padecimientos agudos febriles (temperatura superior a 38.5ºC), enfermedades graves o neurológicas, como hidrocefalia, tumores del sistema nervioso central o cuadros convulsivos sin tratamiento. Tampoco debe aplicarse a personas que padezcan leucemia (excepto si están en remisión y no han recibido quimioterapia en los últimos tres meses), que reciban tratamiento con corticosteroides por tiempo prolongado u otros medicamentos inmunosupresores o citotóxicos. En el caso de la vacuna Schwarz, no se aplicará a personas con antecedentes de reacción anafiláctica a las proteínas del huevo (si la alergia es de otro tipo, sí pueden ser vacunadas). Las personas transfundidas o que han recibido inmunoglobulina, deben esperar tres meses para ser vacunadas.

SARAMPIÓN

6.1.4.1.2 Virus atenuados de rubéola cepa Wistar RA 27/3 cultivado en células diploides humanas, en células diploides humanas MRC-5 o WI-38. La dosis de 0.5 ml debe contener no menos de 3.0 log10 DICC50.
6.1.4.1.3 Virus atenuados de la parotiditis cultivados en huevo embrionario de gallina o en células diploides, de las cepas Rubini, Leningrad-Zagreb, Jeryl Lynn, Urabe AM-9, RIT 4385. Cada dosis debe contener no menos de 3.7 log10 DICC50, a excepción de la cepa Jeryl Lynn que debe contener no menos de 4.3 log10 DICC50.

6.1.4.2 Indicaciones: Para la inmunización activa contra sarampión, rubéola y parotiditis.
6.1.4.3 Administración: subcutánea, en la región deltoidea del brazo izquierdo;
6.1.4.4 Grupo de edad: aplicación a todos los niños entre uno y seis años, o personas mayores de esta edad en circunstancias de riesgo epidemiológico;
6.1.4.5 Esquema: dos dosis de vacuna; la primera a partir de los doce meses de edad; cuando esto no sea posible, el periodo se ampliará hasta los cuatro años y, la segunda, al cumplir los seis años o ingresar a la escuela primaria;
6.1.4.6 Dosis: 0.5 ml de vacuna reconstituida.
6.1.4.7 Contraindicaciones: Inmunodeficiencias que incluye a pacientes con enfermedades hemato/oncológicas en quimio o radioterapia, a excepción de la infección por VIH/SIDA, padecimientos agudos febriles (temperatura superior a 38.5ºC), enfermedades graves o neurológicas, como hidrocefalia, tumores del sistema nervioso central o cuadros convulsivos sin tratamiento. Tampoco debe aplicarse a personas que padezcan leucemia (excepto si están en remisión y no han recibido quimioterapia en los últimos tres meses), que reciban tratamiento con corticosteroides por tiempo prolongado u otros medicamentos inmunosupresores o citotóxicos. En el caso de la vacuna Schwarz, no se aplicará a personas con antecedentes de reacción anafiláctica a las proteínas del huevo (si la alergia es de otro tipo, sí pueden ser vacunadas). Las personas transfundidas o que han recibido inmunoglobulina, deben esperar tres meses para ser vacunadas.

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