Origen del zapato – Evolución del calzado

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Al igual que otros muchos inventos, objetos y costumbres, la aparición del zapato data desde la aparición del hombre, entonces el zapato no sólo se utilizaba para proteger los pies sino que también era un símbolo que marcaba diferencias entre los seres humanos.

¿Qué es el zapato?

Zapato, etimología: de Tapatu “tapar, taponar” deriva zapatu “calcar, pisar” que, a su vez, viene de tapa=zapa como sustantivo e indeterminado de los verbos antedichos. De tapa=zapa derivan tapia “chapín”, tapitu “pisotear”. No es extraño, por lo tanto, que el vascuence llame zapata a este tipo de “calzado”. El Diccionario Etimológico de la Real Academia Española (RAE) recurre al turco para explicarlo.

Entre 1899 y 1925, la RAE daba para zapato la etimología latina diabathrum y ésta del griego: diabathrum, i, n, calzado femenino. Actualmente figura derivando del turco zabata. También misteriosamente en los antiguos diccionarios zapato aparece derivando de zapata, que figura en la 22ª Edición como: “Calzado que llega a media pierna, como el coturno antiguo”, pero que sorpresivamente deriva de zapato.

A pesar de ser una palabra existente en varias lenguas, el origen de “zapato” es desconocido. Lo único que podemos afirmar con certeza es que existe, además del castellano (lengua en que se documenta desde el siglo XII y con la forma “çapatones”, desde el siglo X), en portugués (“sapato”, desde el s. XII), en catalán y occitano (“sabata”, también desde el s. XII), en francés (“savate”, s. XII), en italiano (“ciabatta”, ‘zapato viejo’, desde el siglo XIV) y en vasco (“zapata”). También existió en el árabe vulgar de España y del norte de África (“sabbat”, desde el s. XI). Palabras similares con idéntico o parecido significado existen en otras lenguas (“chobot”, en alguna lengua eslava; “chabata”, en tártaro), aunque el parecido pudiera ser casual.

El hecho de que la documentación más antigua se halle precisamente en España (en el castellano y en el árabe vulgar) lleva a pensar que el vocablo se originó en la Península Ibérica. No obstante, sorprende que en castellano y portugués la consonante intervocálica sea una -p- mientras que en las otras lenguas románicas es una -b- Esto parece indicar que en aquellos idiomas entró en una época no demasiado remota (es decir, anterior a la sonorización de las consonantes intervocálicas) mientras en las otras lenguas lo haría con mucha anterioridad, la suficiente como para que fueran afectadas por este cambio fonético y contrariamente, por tanto, a lo que hace pensar la fecha de documentación en cada lengua. Todo ello no hace más que añadir confusión al origen de esta palabra, para la que se han propuesto diversas etimologías poco satisfactorias (del griego “diabáthron”, ‘zapatilla’ o relacionada con el vasco “zapaldu”, ‘aplastar’, ‘chapotear’). En última instancia es posible que su origen fuera onomatopéyico, es decir, emulador del sonido del pie al hollar el suelo (compárese, por ejemplo, el verbo “chapotear”)

ANTECEDENTES

 Existen evidencias que la historia del zapato comienza a partir del año 10.000 a.C., más o menos, al final del periodo paleolítico (pinturas de esta época en cuevas de Teruel, España y sur de Francia, hacen referencia al calzado). Entre los utensilios de piedra de los hombres de las cuevas, existen varios tipos de estos que servían para raspar las pieles, lo que indica que el arte de curtir el cuero es muy antiguo. En los hipogeos (cámaras subterráneas utilizadas para entierros múltiples) egipcios, que tienen la edad entre 6 y 7 mil años, fueron descubiertas pinturas que representaban los diversos estados de la preparación del cuero y de los calzados.

Excavaciones de hace dos décadas, en una cueva en Armenia lanzaron a la luz un zapato en excelentes condiciones que fue usado hace 5,400 años. Lo sorprendente del descubrimiento no es lo antiguo del zapato, ni las buenas condiciones en que se ha preservado, sino lo semejante que es a un zapato actual.

Fue hecho con piel de vaca, tiene una abertura en la parte central y unos agujeritos en los costados por donde pasan agujetas hechas de la misma piel. Otra agujeta amarra el zapato al tobillo. Los investigadores le dieron forma para ajustarlo a un pie actual convirtiéndose en un zapato talla 5.

Ahora hablemos del calzado en algunos periodos históricos

 

EDAD MEDIA

Los hombres y mujeres de la edad media ”Tanto los hombres como las mujeres calzaban zapatos de cuero abiertos, similares a lo que hoy conocemos como una zapatilla. Las botas altas atadas delante y al lado estaban diseñadas para los hombres. Se solía utilizar mayoritariamente la piel de vaca, aunque las de mayor calidad eran las de piel de cabra. Fue a partir de la Edad Media, cuando se comenzaron a utilizar diferentes materiales alternados para que se adaptara mejor al pie.

La Edad Media, suele dividirse en dos grandes períodos: Temprana o Alta Edad Media (ss. v-x, sin una clara diferenciación con la Antigüedad Tardía); y Baja Edad Media (ss. xi-xv), que a su vez puede dividirse en un periodo de plenitud, la Plena Edad Media (ss. xi-xiii), y los dos últimos siglos que presenciaron la crisis del siglo xiv.

La Edad Media realizó una curiosa combinación entre la diversidad y la unidad. La diversidad fue el nacimiento de las incipientes naciones… La unidad, o una determinada unidad, procedía de la religión cristiana, que se impuso en todas partes… esta religión reconocía la distinción entre clérigos y laicos, de manera que se puede decir que… señaló el nacimiento de una sociedad laica…. Todo esto significa que la Edad Media fue el período en que apareció y se construyó Europa.

Esa misma Europa Occidental produjo una impresionante sucesión de estilos artísticos (prerrománico, románico y gótico), que en las zonas fronterizas se mestizaron también con el arte islámico (mudéjar, arte andalusí, arte árabe-normando) o con el arte bizantino.

En el siglo XIV, el calzado de moda en Europa era un zapato puntiagudo con punteras que se alargaban varios centímetros, y acababan en forma de garra de pájaro, o pico de águila. Algunos incluso tenían forma de pene, lo que motivó que los papas Urbano V y Carlos V de Francia prohibieran su uso a los católicos. Pero ni ellos pudieron parar el desvergonzado modo, que se prolongó durante varios años.

En la Edad Media el calzado característico era de cuero, abierto, con forma semejante a la zapatilla. Este calzado era homogéneo para hombres y mujeres sin embargo, los hombres también usaban botas altas y bajas amarradas delante y al lado, siendo estas de piel de vaca en su generalidad, empero, las de mejor calidad eran confeccionadas con piel de cabra.

Barroco

Durante el barroco, los hombres daban preferencias al calzado del material más refinado (piel o brocado) con tacón alto y ornamentos muy vistosos, como, por ejemplo, lazos, grandes hebillas, bordados y piedras preciosas. El rococó surgido en Francia bajo el reinado de Luis XV (1715-1774), tomó el relevo del pomposo barroco con zapatos más elegantes y decorados.

Romanticismo, neoclasicismo y realismo

Los zapatos con lazos y otras decoraciones regresaron durante un breve período, si bien a mediados de ese mismo siglo la moda del calzado masculino experimentó profundas transformaciones en las que dominó mayoritariamente el zapato bajo.

Impresionismo, neoimpresionismo y postimpresionismo

En las primeras décadas del Siglo XX se realizaron zapatos con pedrería, de tela bordada. Aunque lo más utilizado en esa época (tanto por hombres como por mujeres) fueron las botas.

LA IMPORTANCIA DEL CALZADO EN CULTURAS ANTIGUAS  

Hacia el 2.000 a.C. hasta el 539 a.C., Babilonia era un antiguo estado localizado en Mesopotamia, actualmente Irak y se originó a partir de los territorios de Acad y Sumeria. Los babilonios heredaron de los sumerios muchos conocimientos. Como aquéllos, empleaban sobre todo las sandalias, pero en algunas tablas cuneiformes citan también zapatos bordados y adornados con aplicaciones metálicas.

En Mesopotamia eran comunes los zapatos de cuero crudo, amarrados a los pies por tiras del mismo material. Los coturnos eran símbolos de alta posición social.

Coturno: m. Calzado de suela de corcho gruesa que, con objeto de aparecer más altos, usaban en las tragedias los actores griegos. Calzado que cubría el pie y la pierna hasta la pantorrilla, usado por los antiguos griegos y romanos.

 ESCITAS

Constituyeron un pueblo seminómada que habitó en el norte del Mar Negro –actualmente Ucrania y más al este entre el Mar Caspio y Aral. Se conocen sus antecedentes desde el año 2000 a.C., pero su primera mención en la historia es una alianza con los asirios en el siglo VII a.C. Practicaban la cría de caballos. Los hombres se ocupaban de la caza y la guerra, mientras que las mujeres se ocupaban de los animales, la generación de alimentos, construcción de las casas, el curtido de pieles, con los que hacían ropas y zapatos. Algunos restos de pieles y cuero, botas de cuero flexible para montar sobre todo de color rojo, se han encontrado congelados en Kazakistán.

ETRUSCOS

Constituyeron un enigmático pueblo que desde la Toscana se extendió por el sur hacia el Lacio y parte septentrional de la Campania, en donde chocaron con las colonias griegas; hacia el norte de la península itálica ocuparon la zona que rodea el valle del río Po, en la actual región de Lombardía. Llegaron a ser una potencia naval en el Mediterráneo Occidental. En cierto modo predecesora de Roma y heredera del mundo helénico, fueron destacadísimos orfebres, así como innovadores constructores navales, su cultura y excelentes técnicas militares hicieron de este pueblo el dueño del norte y centro de la Península Itálica desde el siglo VII a.C. hasta la llegada de Roma. Los primeros reyes de Roma fueron etruscos. Los datos con que contamos acerca de su calzado provienen de pinturas y esculturas.

FENICIOS

Vivieron entre el año 2.000 a.C. y el 64 a.C. Era un pueblo originario del Golfo Pérsico que emigró a las costas del Mediterráneo oriental. Fundaron varias ciudades, entre las cuales las más importantes fueron Tiro y Sidón y una colonia sobre el mar: Cartago. No se conocen sus procesos de curtido. Usaban principalmente sandalias.

 

HEBREOS

El hábitat original de los hebreos, pueblos semitas de pastores nómades, fue la península arábiga. Sin embargo, en tiempos antiguos (2.000 a.C al 44 d.C), migraron de la Baja Mesopotamia, a las proximidades de la ciudad de Ur. El término hebreo (“habiru”) significa “gente del otro lado”, es decir, los que venían del otro lado del río Eufrates. Hacia el siglo XVIII a.C, cuando dominaba la primera Dinastía de Babilonia, este pueblo se trasladó desde Ur hasta Palestina, que antiguamente se llamaba Canaán. Es probable que el desplazamiento se haya debido a fenómenos naturales que redujeron la posibilidad de obtener alimentos, combinado con la presión ejercida por los pueblos mesopotámicos. Su pueblo estaba constituido de un grupo de 12 tribus que hacia el 2.000 a.C. se asentaron en Palestina, donde fundaron ciudad propia y continuaron dedicándose a la cría de ovejas y viajando. Curtían cuero y calzaban predominantemente sandalias. Las femeninas estaban tachonadas con metal cuyo diseño formaba el nombre de la persona amada en la suela, de modo que, a cada paso, permanecía impreso en el suelo.

En la cultura judía ortodoxa, si una mujer enviudaba sin haber tenido hijos, su cuñado estaba obligado a casarse con ella y reproducirse. Si el pariente optaba por evadir el matrimonio, se realizaba la ceremonia “halizah” en la que la viuda quitaba los cordones y luego el zapato a su cuñado, librándolo así del compromiso. En el acto, también ella quedaba libre de casarse con quien deseara. Esta tradición fue abandonada desde tiempos inmemoriales, aunque todavía subsiste en algunas comunidades ortodoxas.

En el judaísmo hay una plegaria que se dice en el momento de ponerse los zapatos; y por otra parte, cuando muere un ser querido, durante el periodo de luto (Shiva), los familiares no usan zapatos, lo que significa símbolo de pobreza e indica que son pobres sin su presencia.

Sandalias cristianas: Los zapatos usados por la mayoría en tiempos del Nuevo Testamento eran sin duda sandalias. Estas consistían de una suela de madera o de cuero, que se aseguraban a los pies con correas de cuero. Algunas personas usaban algo que se asemejaba a los zapatos occidentales. Con ellos el pie estaba completamente cubierto, o sólo los pulgares quedaban de fuera. Tales zapatos se consideraban como una voluptuosidad.

HITITAS

Vivieron entre el 2.000 al 1.100 a.C. Los habitantes de Anatolia (actual centro de Turquía), una región montañosa, se dedicaban al pastoreo. Conocían como procesar el cuero y fabricaron un zapato fuerte, necesario en una región escarpada como la que habitaban. Un texto hitita se refiere a el enojo que causaba al dios Telipinu de la agricultura, el calzar inadvertidamente “el pie derecho en la bota izquierda y el pie izquierdo en la bota derecha”. Aprendieron de los sumerios y babilonios conocimientos técnicos sobre el curtido de pieles y el tratamiento del cuero y lo perfeccionaron.

Unos 1.100 años a.C. los asirios usaron unas botas de cuero hasta media pantorrilla, sujetas con cordones y con suela provista de un refuerzo metálico. Se sabe que asirios e hititas, unos y otros expertos zapateros, disponían de botas militares con los pies izquierdo y derecho diferenciados. La bota de la infantería asiria tardó mucho en ser adoptada por los soldados griegos y romanos. De pelear descalzos, éstos progresaron hasta adoptar las sandalias con suelas claveteadas, y tanto griegos como romanos sólo se equipaban con botas gruesas para largas travesías a pie. En tiempo frío, estas botas solían estar forradas con pelo y adornadas en su parte superior con la cola o zarpa colgante de algún animal.

PERSAS

En las mismas fechas 2.000 a.C. al 539 a.C. Durante el siglo VI a.C., el pueblo persa se ubicó en la meseta de Irán, se caracterizó por la ferocidad en el combate de su población guerrera por excelencia. Las fuentes para el estudio del traje persa son las ruinas de la antigua ciudad de Persépolis, donde está ubicado el palacio de Ciro El Grande. El calzado que usaban se denominaba kroumir. Era un botín flexible y de forma anatómica, corto a nivel del tobillo donde se ataba con correas, confeccionado en suave cuero, con lengüeta que cubre el empeine, fijo mediante broches bordados en forma de media luna.

En el Museo Nacional de Teherán, puede observarse una estatuilla de un noble elamita Shami (Khuzistán, Irán sudoccidental) correspondiente al período parto, s. I a.C.- I d.C. Bronce; altura 27,5 cm, ancho 13cm, grueso 6cm – Los zapatos se hallan envueltos por anchas correas sujetas en el centro mediante botones y presentan una punta levemente curvada hacia arriba. Las correas sugieren zapatos flexibles, aunque por la forma rígida de la punta cabe deducir que se trata de botas de cuero.

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